Tapping Geodata through 3d Maps, Lepton Software’s rfMAPs

How rfMap can help transform your network


According to Forbes, there are 2.5 million quintillion bytes of the day created each day, and thanks to IoT the pace is only going to accelerate further. We are currently in the revolution towards propelling a future that is solely driven by data. While the world is set to digitize, the infrastructure surrounding our networking systems requires a major overhaul in terms of planning in itself, let alone optimization. It is more important now than ever, to integrate intelligent solutions, to derive conclusive information from the constant waxing and waning that the sales graphs of the competitive network and communication market show.

In the past decade, faster networks were necessitated to fill the gap needs of on-the-go streaming services. The era of 4G wireless broadband played a pivotal role in the way we perceived information. However, corporations are in for a new challenge now. Thanks to IoT, we are moving towards a digital age that needs to accomplish data collection on a massive scale and the electronic devices market relying on such technology is booming exponentially. With 5G poised to launch in the first half of the coming decade, the conundrum regarding investment strategy is quite evident among the network & communication players. 

While 5G is all set to enable 10GBPS speed and Mass-Machine Time Communication, it is important to note that today’s network planning infrastructure is falling short of meeting expectations regarding the problems of signal sensitivity. Tapping Geodata through 3D Maps, Lepton Software’s rfMaps plays to the rhythm of the data analytics solutions on a new and refreshing note. A prodigal solution in 3D digitization, rfMaps provides a Digital Terrain Model using raster and vector 3D MAP dataset with a staggering 1-meter resolution for determining heights of buildings, trees, and other elevated objects. 3D simulations are derived using proprietary software that uses data vintage, providing you the necessary information through standardized KML files and shapefiles

While M-MTC is the way of the future, spectrum planning and the initial network sharing issues may deter latency. rfMaps tackles this challenge by integrating population distribution maps to the solution. To understand how this can help, let us first look at what a population map is. Population distribution maps provide clutter data pertaining to the population density of a particular region. Clutter data uses various layers on the map that can show information ranging from settlement and habitation statistics to the existence of water bodies, agricultural land and more. Urban models can pave the way for bringing your customers closer to you.

It seems that the green era of the 1990s for the telecom industry has long gone and moved on towards browner pastures. With 5G set to roll in, the initial hurdles of network sharing, spectrum planning, and infrastructure investments are all going to land in significant damages, while the sales team is scrambling for customer acquisitions. The best way to tackle this is to use intelligent software that can correlate demographics data with infrastructure planning, the way rfMaps has.


Focus on the Field with Smart Track


The phenomenal growth in the telecom industry in terms of new products and faster and better services has been clearly visible. The introduction of 5G and fiber optics has necessitated the constant up-gradation and management of assets, creating an ever-changing environment on the field that is barely traceable on the overall scale of changes at the top level. While recognizing the know-how of when and where to accommodate new assets is one challenge altogether, the real cost to company and day-to-day challenges lie in integrating newer routes into the field operations manual. 

In today’s world of digital transformation, optimization of field service has to go beyond just simply hiring staff for people management at the blue-collar level. While micro-management of assets and people has largely had a negative connotation, there’s every impetus to look to rethink things now as we are all more connected than ever. With dashboard management of field task forces, the burden of back-office paperwork has now become a thing of the past. 

Lepton Software’s Smart Track app has gone a step further than just a nifty looking dashboard. Smart Track is a combination of Web Portal and Mobile App.

Smart Track intelligently scales to give you insights right from patroller performance all the way to regional circle and national circle statistics.

Smart Track’s mobile app can support up to 5000 field force workers at a time. Smart Track also allows photo and document upload with geo-tagging to ensure absolute transparency. The app is chat-enabled to improve communication between patrollers and managers. Smart Track’s web interface is an easy use reports database that provides comprehensive information about patrolling hours, route intelligence and patroller attendance on local, regional and national levels. 

With convenience to the management workforce being the core of the service, apart from just live tracking of workforce, Lepton allows you to track details as a minute as over speeding, deflection from planned routes, early checkouts and data turn-offs through mobile notifications for immediate rectification and red-flagging. Workforce tracking, attendance and check-in check-out reports patrolling pause data, and more make assessments for raises and bonuses on the blue-collar level a breeze with Smart Track’s patroller performance reports. 

With easy integration into existing OSS/BSS platforms apart from Lepton’s own Network Access, ticket raising, closing, geotagging and other real-time monitoring can bring fresh new insights in the form of tangible data from the field. As a premier partner of Google Maps, Lepton’s Smart Track is also integrated with the Maps interface for added ease of use and absolute reliability. With complete and consolidated information at the tip of your hands, Smart Track has aimed at covering the length and breadth of Field Response Team (FRT) tracking and scheduling.

Top Challenges in Today’s Telecom Industry


With digital transformation being the buzzword of today, Telco’s are quickly gaining traction by leveraging the latest technological advances in IoT and analytics.

Telecom is in the midst of a giant revolution and is truly acting as the key enabler towards a more digitally inclined tomorrow, thanks to advances in AR, VR, microservices and more, necessitating a faster and more connected future. 5G implementations are running at a high pace. The fiber optics industry is growing at a pace of 15.2% CAGR, with the industry standing at $4 billion in revenue world over. Through these heaping revolutions, businesses are increasingly facing the brunt of competition and are now in the tangles to realign business structures to endear the cloud era.

The biggest bottlenecks that the Telco’s have to overcome are:

  1. Inventory optimization: With decreasing profit margins, it is now more important than ever to invest time in restructuring the planning and designing phase for not just upcoming expansions, but also general maintenance. Integrating new technology into the system increasingly leans towards the convenience of placing physical inventory in a single location that is geospatially linked strategically. Lepton Software’s Smart Inventory is able to provide enterprise information sharing solutions, using an intelligent paradigm that enables Telco’s to create, visualize and update inventory through on-cloud and on-premise applications.
  2. Initial investments for expansion: Increased site surveys are posing challenges to telecom enterprises and are currently the main reason for soaring customer acquisition costs. For 4G expansion, in particular, the sensitivity of the bandwidth necessitates extremely accurate planning. Using intelligent solutions such as Lepton’s NetworkAccess provides automated and accurate information using stunning visuals that can capture not just geographic but even demographic information that can be incredibly handy in deciding the phases of expansion. This software not only helps Telcos in saving money on-site surveys but also saving execution time inevitably leading to faster ROI.
  3. Field service inefficiency: In the light of increased expansion of fiber networks, it is extremely crucial to maintain unhindered service to customers in order to reduce churn rates. The most common reason for churn is not a disruption of services, but the subsequent handling of complaints. Customer service in times of problem-solving requires efficiency in terms of fault-detection.
  4. Moving to the cloud and other IT challenges: System Administration is challenging and with a bid to move infrastructure management to the cloud, it is extremely important to ensure operational efficiency during the transition. A robust end-to-end management system like NetworkAccess is the ultimate solution to reducing the burden of operational and its costs.
  5. Asset Management: Non-discovery of capital goods is a consequence of bad reporting and inefficient operations management. This not just eats from the profits, but also leads to decreased company evaluations, during funding rounds for expansion.
  6. Capital Management inefficiency: Capital Management is one arena that can make or break a company’s expansion phase. While collecting inventory data is not the issue, cleaning it up in such a way that it can drive sales is the challenge. As new cards are added, removed and replaced on an ongoing basis, tracking the consequences of the changes is where the real money lies in terms of making informed decisions. Using Smart Analytics, service providers can have an accurate view of the current status of usage efficiencies and can easily channel investments in the right direction.

Using intelligent software that can help plan, track, assess and scale through accurate analysis is the much-needed respite for Telcos. Network Access, built by, Lepton Software helps overcome each of these challenges through 5 smart modules, each designed specifically for the telecom industry. Furthermore, these modules are tailored to exactly fit your company’s requirements.

What it takes to digitize CSP’s Plan & Build Journey?


While all other industries are already on board the digital transformation train, leveraging new goodies that the new IT revolution has brought forth, it seems that Network and Communication Service Providers have lagged on that forte. One reason may be because disruption of services may be the end of the game in this extremely competitive environment. However, smart planning and choosing the ideal partner who provides end-to-end service may be the solution going forward, as this would not only reduce the impact of dealing with clashing technologies of several contractors, complicating systems integration further, it would also mean that there is only one point of integration, giving a very clear and defined path for IT Services Management within the organization. NetworkAccess is the solution designed specifically for operators and addresses the needs of managing the entire network lifecycle journey from Planning to Building to Operating. 

What you can do with NetworkAccess

NetworkAccess is a suite of 5 value packages that give you complete authority over planning, designing, maintaining and documenting inventory. The system is specifically modeled towards catering to CSPs. It takes both wired and wireless assets into consideration for a smoother workflow. NetworkAccess takes care of the complete life cycle giving emphasis on time bound planning, apart from cost considerations.

What you get with NetworkAccess

The 5 value packages of NetworkAccess work in tandem with each other to produce results in terms of efficiency and optimization.

SmartInventory: SmartInventory is a comprehensive tool for network planning with map data integrated within its infrastructure. All telecom modules within your organization can function with this one tool. Through the GIS platform enabled SmartInventory, you can incorporate preventive
maintenance to your system at a full-blown scale to minimize costs on repair. It comes integrated with OSS application and Fiber Optic Network monitoring system with Fiber tracker app, to vastly simplify fault detection and provide better service to your cream clients.

SmartPlanner: The world’s first fully automated MDU planner, SmartPlanner is a strategic tool for developing full-scale expansion plans in your area within minutes. An easy-use fiber design software, SmartPlanner can provide maps of spare ducts, trenches, poles, cables and manholes at one go at the site of your choice. With this tool, you will never have to worry about overshooting your capital cost. Apart from Visio planning, this tool can even take your existing inventory database and provide data-driven solutions for optimized BOQ.

SmartFeasibility: SmartFeasibility is the handy guide to quickly determine P2P and P2MP feasibility for wireline, bandwidth, wi-max and ultra-fast networks. A future-forward BSS order management system, SmartFeasibility helps you provide seamless customer service, to vastly improve conversion rates. You can easily find alternate routes as well as upload multiple demand points so that you are first to jump the gun when an area crosses the feasibility point, from the standpoint of ROI.

SmartLocator: An invaluable cloud-based tool for customers as well as stakeholders, SmartLocator helps provide instant answers to “Where can I find you?”.SmartLocator uses current locations as well as google address search results to connect users to you. Users can sort and filter based on products/services. They also gave the option to generate e-tickets and tokens in case they are looking for service centers. 

SmartAnalytics: SmartAnalytics is the easiest solution to integrating the power of big data to big corporations having large customer bases like the telecom industry. SmartAnalytics provides useful and relevant information to drive better business decision in terms of sales, planning, marketing, inventory, competition, mapping and more. With SmartAnalytics you can be assured of having data back every change in the organization.

A solution that has already seen 20+ million satisfied customers, NetworkAccess is the guaranteed route towards digital transformation within the Network and Communications industry.

Why Google Cloud’s Infrastructure Is Right For Your Business


Secure, high performance, global, cost-effective and constantly improving, Google Cloud’s infrastructure is built for the long haul. Google Cloud Platform is easy to set up, easy to run and security built in. GCP frees you from the overhead of managing infrastructure, provisioning servers and configuring networks. To let innovators, innovate and let coders, well, just code.

Now’s the time to move your business forward with Google Cloud. GCP provides future-proof infrastructure like no other cloud service provider.

Faster Boot Times

You can compute Engine instances boot in the range of 40-50 seconds, roughly 1/5 of the time required by competing clouds. This means you can grow your application’s serving capacity very rapidly in response to incoming traffic.

Google Grade Security

Deploy on an infrastructure protected by more than 500 top experts in information, application, and network security. The Google security model is an end-to-end process, built on over 15 years of experience focused on keeping customers safe on Google applications like Gmail and G Suite. With Cloud Platform your applications and data take advantage of the same pervasive security model.

Live Migration

Google Compute Engine’s instances can be moved to nearby hosts while active—even while under extreme load—complete with their working SSD storage (up to 1.5 TB). Since your VMs don’t need to be rebooted for host software updates or other standard operational tasks, uptimes are superb. This ensures predictable performance across all the different parts of your application.

Custom Machine Types

Any size machine, as long as it’s a power of 2? Not on Cloud Platform. GCP lets you configure the right combination of memory & virtual CPU for your workload, so you no longer have to overprovision to fit your vendor’s rate card, which means more savings for you, potentially up to 50% more price/performance efficient, depending on your workload.

Sub-Second Archive Restore

Google Cloud Storage Nearline delivers sub-second data availability and provides high throughput for prompt restoration of data. In fact, it’s fast enough that many customers simply use it as their only storage tier. Competing systems take 4-5 hours to do the same data archiving tasks, offer substantially lower throughput, and often charge confusing and expensive fees for restore. GCP’s fees are simple: 1 penny per GB/month to store, 1 penny per GB to restore.

Global Load Balancers That Scale To 1 Million+ Users Instantly

GCP’s built-in load balancer is part of a worldwide distributed system for delivering customers to infrastructure, the same system that supports Google products like Maps, Gmail, and Search. Its autoscaling capabilities are designed to tolerate extreme spikes in traffic, and easily scale from no traffic to millions of requests per second, in seconds. This improves the performance of your applications: every user, no matter how many of them show up at once, will make it through to your stack.

680,000 IOPS Sustained Local SSD Read Rate

All but the smallest flavours of Compute Engine can mount up to 1.5TB of Local SSD capable of 680k of sustained read performance. Competing systems max out at less than half that speed for nearly four times the cost, and are only available on certain instance sizes. Faster IOPS makes everything in your app faster and lets you handle more users per instance.

Global Network Of Data Centers

The same infrastructure that runs Google apps is available to you on Cloud Platform. Google’s global network footprint, with over 100 points-of-presence across more than 33 countries, ensures you receive the same low latency and responsiveness customers expect from Google’s own services. Recognized as some of the most energy efficient and secure in the world, Google’s decade of data centre innovation is immediately available to you.

Article Source: Google Cloud Platform

To know more about Google Cloud’s infrastructure, click here.

Google Map’s two-wheeler mode rolled out in India


To help bikers find the most appropriate route in India, Google Maps rolled out navigation routes for two-wheelers with voice assistant capabilities on Tuesday. This new travel mode in Google Maps in India is seen alongside Drive, Train or Bus and Walk alternatives. This new feature will offer precise travel times to display speeds, customized routing and voice-guided navigation and boost landmark navigation for two-wheeler drivers.

Google trusts that India is the largest two-wheeler market in the world and it was important to get the two-wheeler traffic on the roads right. There are plenty of roads that two-wheelers can take but cars can’t, and there are highways where two-wheelers are not allowed.

Earlier, two-wheeler drivers would figure a way amid drive and walk mode on their own. Two-wheeler mode in Maps shows trip routes that use “shortcuts” not reachable to cars and trucks. It also provides tailored traffic and arrival time estimations. It was often problematic for the two-wheelers to find ways, but this new feature will help them in commuting confidentially and in a dependable manner.

Location Intelligence & Analytics – why businesses need it?


Location Intelligence is the process of analysing data with a location as a dominant factor. It allows the brands to explore simple yet important characteristics typical to a particular location. For decades now, businesses have utilized location as part of their research or analysis in its most rudimentary form. It is commonly estimated that more than 80% of data analysed by companies across the world have a location component to it

Location intelligence is The New Business Intelligence

However, today with the penetration of IoT across the globe, businesses are equipping themselves to dig deeper into the data insights with Location Intelligence capabilities. In the near future, Location Intelligence has the potential to evolve into a complete analysis division alongside Business Intelligence components.By leveraging insights from Location Intelligence, firms can detect patterns, opportunities, glitches and risks for themselves corresponding to a given area of operations.

Business expansion with Location Intelligence Get Details

Location Intelligence also enables businesses to address specific business concern or query. For example, with the cab pooling concept internet enabled cab providers can easily pool as many as 4 ride requests for one cab and instantly draw the best route for cab drivers to follow. This concept has created a win-win situation for the company, its customers and the drivers. Without any human intervention, the company is able to seamlessly address a very high volume of cab pool requests on a daily basis. There are multiple examples of how LI can offer very specific benefits to a firm that enables them to reduce cost, improve revenues, and do much more.

Business insights are connected to the question of where

Location analytics helps organisations to identify local trends, patterns, and opportunities.It gives platform to business to adapt according to consumer needs to understand their lifestyles and ensures profitability.It is the process to give insight on geographic location and give enterprises a medium to understand historical data and analyze in real time.Logistics companies can reap maximum benefit out of it, as they need to track locations for delivery vehicles and package sin real time.Many advantages can be foreseen if location analytics is used by organisations like harness the power of data, empowers staff expertise,enhances marketing decisions,improving site selection and uses historical spending trends.

How retail chains employ Location Intelligence to connect with customers Get Details

Lepton is a leader in Geodata (rfMap) for wireless network planning & optimization including solutions. We are partnered with Pitney Bowes for their product Map Info which is the world’s premier desktop GIS (Geographic Information System) & GIS mapping application.

We are a leading provider of fiber planning and inventory solution, NetworkAccess to major Telecom, ISP’s & Broadband providers with more than 65% market share in India. Lepton is also Google Maps premier partner for more than 10 years in India, Middle East & Singapore. We have supported 500+ companies in their growth journey since its inception across other verticals like FMCG, Logistics & Transportation, Govt., Automotive etc.

Gain an insight into FTTX Networks: Technology Implementation & Operation


What is FTTx?

FTTX stands for Fiber to the X (where X is a particular name/object). It is a type of broadband network architecture which uses telecom provider’s network to deliver broadband connections to homes, businesses and other establishments.

Types of FTTX :

FTTH: fiber to the home**

FTTP: fiber to the premises**

FTTC: fiber to the curb

FTTN: Fiber to the node

FTTx: referred to all varieties!

**Fiber to the home or fiber to the premises are the same thing, although “premises” was probably chosen to indicate the user could be a business as well as a household. Anyway, the idea is to bring fiber to the end user and offer high bandwidth services not available otherwise.

Web based Telecom Network Feasibility Tool Get Details

FTTH is mostly a telco issue : Telcos have many aging cable plants that cannot support DSL but it is too expensive to replace old copper  with new copper just for POTS (plain old telephone service.) However, the aging copper is expensive to maintain. Some analysts also claim that FTTH maintenance costs are so much lower than keeping the current copper network going provides up to 2/3 of the financial benefits of FTTH – much greater than the revenue enhancements!

CATV companies have HFC networks in place and have the ability to bring gigabit signals to the home, although some are looking at replacing the coax drop to the home with fiber.

Competitive carriers now install their own fiber since FCC rules have changed and they cannot be assured of access to competitive carriers cable plants.

Telcos are fighting for exclusive rights where others, such as municipalities or utilities are trying to install FTTH, even if the telcos are not immediately planning on running FTTH themselves.

Besides the telcos, several other groups are attempting to install FTTH.

Municipalities: Some of the first FTTH systems were installed by cities – progressive ones like Palo Alto did it at the request of their high-tech citizens, some did it to entice businesses to move there, like Anaheim, some did it (or are trying to) because they were not pleased with the service of telcos or CATV companies. The latter often found the telcos or CATV companies to be formidable opponents who did not always play fair! Most municipal FTTx projects use rights of way available to the city through city-owned utilities.

Utilities: Owning rights of way to the home convinced some utilities to try FTTH or FTTC. Ethernet over power lines is becoming a option for power companies who can use power lines for the final connection to the home. FTTx is even becoming real for rural customers through rural electrical cooperatives.

CLECs (Competitive Local Exchange Carriers) install their own networks and can then sell connections to anyone they pass, but mostly focus on businesses which spend much more money on communications than households.

Private companies: There are private companies that will build municipal FTTH networks under an agreement with the city, similar to CATV agreements. In addition, some contractors building large subdivisions or apartments are installing FTTH with the assumption that they can connect with telecommunications companies for services to resell.

FTTH is a considered a battleground by telcos and CATV companies: Whenever a city or private company proposes to install FTTH, they can expect to have to deal with the legal, advertising and technical staff of the current telco or CATV company. Cities have found themselves in court or in battles where they are outspent by 100 to 1 in advertising in an attempt by the local telcos and CATV companies to defeat competitive systems.

Where is the bulk of telephone cabling? It may not be where you think!

Only 10% is in  long distance networks, which were the first links converted to fiber – years ago. Another 10% is local loop (metropolitan) connecting central offices and switches – now mostly converted to fiber too. Fully 80% of all telco cabling is subscriber loop – the “last mile” that connects the end user to the system.

After 20 years of fiber optic installations, virtually all long distance and local loop connections are already fiber. Only the “last mile” is still copper, and much of it is very old and incapable of carrying modern high bandwidth digital signals. Is FTTx just completing the system to make it all fiber?

Why do we need FTTx? Why do we require it Now?

We recognize five changes in the current telco environment that are affecting attitudes toward FTTH:

  1. Telcos are losing broadband customers to CATV
  2. Telcos are losing landline customers to cell phones and VoIP
  3. New services are becoming available
  4. Fiber optic components are getting less expensive
  5. Regulations changed sharing issues

New Technology makes FTTx cheaper – comparable in cost to copper solutions, lower in cost per bandwidth and with lower operating expenses.

Telecom Inventory Management Get Details

Many telcos are realizing that the alternatives to FTTH are inadequate for future bandwidth needs:

  1. DSL won’t have the bandwidth over most installed copper
  2. Wireless won’t have the bandwidth, and the spectrum may not be affordable
  3. BPL (broadband over power lines) won’t have the bandwidth

If the alternatives do not offer the bandwidth, they cannot be cost effective. Many are realizing that eventually they will have to go FTTH, so why put off the inevitable?

Who Wants FTTx?

  1. Homeowners: for high speed Internet access and video downloads
  2. Home Builders
    • FTTx adds value to their homes
    • FTTx provides a reason to provide structured cabling inside the home
    • These two reasons can add Rs 5L to Rs 10L to the value of a home!
  3. Hardware Providers who want to sell equipment to build the networks and install in the homes as well as structured cabling companies who participate in a market that is about $2500 per home!
  4. Service Providers: IPTV, HDTV, video on demand, etc. Those who want to offer video services are most happy with FTTx as nothing provides the same bandwidth!

FTTx Growth in India

India optical fiber cables (OFC) market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 17% through  2023. Growth in the market is majorly expected to be backed by rising investments in OFC network infrastructure by the Indian government to increase internet penetration across the country, which is in line with the government’s initiatives such as Smart Cities Vision and Digital India. Moreover, growing demand for OFC from IT & telecom sector, rising number of mobile devices, increasing adoption of FTTH (Fiber to the Home) connectivity and surging number of data centers is anticipated to fuel optical fiber cables market in India over the coming years.

FTTx Cost Breakdown

One estimate by Optical Solutions shows this breakdown on the cost of a FTTH network. Cost decisions are interactive. For example, one wonders if the splitters and WDMs are worth the savings in fiber, but adding more fiber would increase installation and thereby construction costs, so it is assumed that they do indeed save costs. Once cannot overemphasize the importance of labor costs – it is the dominant factor – and anything that reduces labor, like preterminated cabling, deserves consideration.

 FTTH Architectures

Home run – fiber  from CO to every home, offers the most flexibility but at the highest cost as no electronics are shared. A good solution for small developments or rural connections.

Active star – local switch then fiber to every home, highly flexible, but simply moves the electronics closer to the home, saving only a small amount in cabling costs. Think of it as fiber to the curb with the curb to home on fiber too.

Passive optical network (PON) – use splitter near customer share fiber to CO. Not only does it share fiber, it shares electronics, using one transmitter at the CO for up to 32 homes, greatly reducing connection costs. Basic PON architectures are widely used because they are usually the least expensive way of implementing FTTH.

WDM PON – PON but with each customer or location having a specified wavelength. Again highly flexible, but more expensive and harder to manage.

All FTTH networks are based on standard SM fiber(ITU G.652), also called dispersion unshifted or non-dispersion shifted fiber. The only fiber option normally considered is to use low-water vapor fiber that removes the water peak at 1400 nm.

FTTx Architecture Home Run

A home run architecture uses a direct fiber run from the CO to the customer. Each is a full duplex optical link, making this generally more expensive from the standpoint of fiber and electronics requirements. It is used in some small systems, like gated communities, sometimes with 2 fibers, one digital for Internet and VoIP, the other for analog CATV. Some people refer to this as a P2P or point-to-point network.

FTTx Architecture Active Star Network

An active star network uses fiber from the central node (CO) to a local active node carrying multiplexed signals to be distributed to all the customers. At the active node, (electronic) switching occurs for each customer and connects to a dedicated optical link to the premises. This may be a more expensive network due to the electronics and powering required, as the node requires uninterruptible local power if support of services like 911 are required, or cheaper for small networks that do not need the size or capability of a PON network. Each system needs to be considered carefully in light of all options.

FTTx Architecture Passive Optical Network (PON)

The passive optical network (PON) uses optical couplers, both wavelength division multiplexers and simpler splitter/combiners, to allow connection of many customers over only one fiber from the CO – like broadcasting TV or radio over air waves. Thus a few fibers can support many customers, typically up to 32 customers on one fiber from the CO to the local splitter.

A PON using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) can be used two ways: It can provide every customer with a dedicated wavelength, greatly expanding bandwidth to any one customer, but a a much greater cost.

A more popular option is to use WDM to send multiple services, usually voice data and video, as well as upstream signals, over a single fiber, as shown in the slides following.

Upstream data from multiple subscribers is time-division multiplexed so each subscriber has a time window to send data back to the system.

Some people refer to this as a P2MP or point-to-multipoint network.

FTTx Alternative Fiber To The Curb

An alternative to FTTH/P is “fiber to the curb.” FTTC brings fiber to the neighborhood and installs a local switch usually in or near a current pedestal. The fiber replaces the copper from the pedestal to the CO, using only the short copper run from the pedestal to the customer premises to make the final connection. Using DSL over these short lengths of copper allows higher bandwidth than a direct CO connection, allowing more flexibility in services offered. A new Ethernet standard for Ethernet in the first mile (802.3ah) is possible for use here with higher capability than current DSL. In addition, if sufficient fibers are installed from the CO to the pedestal at the time of a FTTC upgrade, the system can be converted to a FTTH PON system at a later date by running drop cables to each customer. A new fiber is brought to the pedestal and the CO to pedestal connection is moved to fiber. The subscriber is then connected to the new fiber switch.


Lepton GIS Analytics tool known as Network Access is a platform built to support digitally capturing field data, design of fiber network, network operations, construction supports etc. Services that are provided on this platform such as Quality Analysis/Quality Check, Inventory management, optimize designing of FTTH etc

Planning and designing for planning a FTTH network without GIS had to go through numerous manual steps and dependency on other tools like Auto CAD or traditional methods like drawing, plotting hard copies on paper as shown below:

With the use of GIS the entire process becomes consistent with faster processing, higher quality and ubiquitous. It also becomes easy for the office and field employee to perform iterations, change design in case of issues, collaborate data and perform the integration of the system at a massive scale.

Planning and designing with GIS                  

Below are the steps while planning and designing using GIS tool. Task are divided into 3 types  – Manual, GIS enabled and automation.

Benefits of using GIS for FTTX :

  1. Consistent
  2. Scalable
  3. Speed
  4. Quality
  5. Easy to integrate and collaborate
  6. Multiple iteration possible in less time frame
  7. Productivity increases to a very high extent when compared to CAD

Conclusion :

Fibre as Critical Infrastructure can really speed up benefits to citizens. To cater to the requirement of the demand of high speed connectivity and to give way for the most talked about technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), Block-chain, Smart Homes and Autonomous vehicles. Fibre First initiative is, therefore, a most welcome  step &  the time for action is now.

GIS is the key to success and it will help in planning, designing , intergrating and maintaining the FTTx Network making it more reliable and cost effective solution.

Optical Fibre Network


Why Optical Fibre Network?

An optical network is a type of data communication network built with optical fiber technology. It utilizes optical fiber cables as the primary communication medium for converting data and passing data as light pulses between sender and receiver nodes.

Fibermap Optic Network Design Software Get Details

Optical network is one of the fastest communication networks. It works by using an optical transmitter device to convert an electrical signal received from a network node into light pulses, which are then placed on a fiber optic cable for transport to a receiving device.

Unlike copper based networks, the light pulses of an optical network may be transported quite a distance until the pulses are regenerated through an optical repeater device. After a signal is delivered to a destination network, it is converted into an electrical signal through an optical receiver device and sent to a recipient node.

Moreover, an optical network is less prone to external inference and attenuation and can achieve substantially higher bandwidth speeds than copper networks.

  • Future of Fiber-

Ubiquitous, high speed and low latency networks will require deep fiberization and high densification. The number of network end points will surge due to increasing FTTx penetration, 5G (10-20x small cells per macro cells) and IoT (up to 10 devices per person). All this will require significant network creation with deep fiberisation and high densification.

With demand for fiber expected to grow at a rapid pace as faster 4G/5G networks are rolled out and new age technologies such as IoT, augmented reality, virtual reality, cloud computing etc. become common place, the OFC industry is on a roll.

Global Fiber cable application shares-

  • What is Fiber Planning & Why need of efficient planning-

Fiber optic network design refers to the specialized processes leading to a successful installation and operation of a fiber optic network. It includes first determining the type of communication system(s) which will be carried over the network, the geographic layout (premises, campus, outside plant (OSP, etc.), the transmission equipment required and the fiber network over which it will operate. Designing a fiber optic network usually also requires interfacing to other networks which may be connected over copper cabling and wireless.

Next to consider are requirements for permits, easements, permissions and inspections. Once we get to that stage, we can consider actual component selection, placement, installation practices, testing, troubleshooting and network equipment installation and startup. Finally, we have to consider documentation, maintenance and planning for restoration in event of a future outage.

The design of the network must precede not only the installation itself, but it must be completed to estimate the cost of the project and, for the contractor, bid on the job. Design not only affects the technical aspects of the installation, but the business aspects also.

Even before the network has been built, decisions are made that will determine important aspects of its future operations and maintenance. Therefore, the best basis for the efficient operation and maintenance is a well-considered and consistent network strategy from the outset. The strategy should cover all aspects of how the network will be built and extended, including the network topology and architecture, the design rules and the choice of equipment. During the strategic planning phase, the network operator decides how the network will be built. There is much more to consider than just the initial investment.

Telecom Inventory Management Get Details

Although it is important to reduce the capex because of its impact on the viability of the business case, the opex should also be carefully considered. For every deployment option the operator should evaluate how this would affect the cost of future operation and maintenance processes, such as customer provisioning, network maintenance and repair, and how easily the network could be extended and upgraded. Please note that this paper focuses on the technical aspects of the deployment strategy only. The dependencies of the ownership and financial models, which also influence strategic decisions, are beyond the scope of the paper and will not be taken into account.

  • Scope of Lepton GIS in Optical fiber network planning, inventory management & analysis-

Outside plant installations depend heavily on maps and data about the cable plant route. This can include basic data on the local geology, locations of road, buildings, underground and aerial utilities, and much more. For example the type of ground along the route can determine the methods of underground installation, with deep soil permitting direct burial, other soils requiring trenching and conduit and rocky areas precluding underground installation of any type. Aerial installations must be based on knowledge of the owners of the poles and the processes necessary to gain permission to use the poles and make ready for new cable installations

Lepton’s Network Access (NA) & Smart Inventory (SI) are GIS analysis & Inventory Management platforms created with very detailed & high precision Google maps. Moreover it can be customised as per user requirements of planning and or analysis. It is web based & can be accessible over internet. It does not depend on the system hardware neither has any requirement of additional software installation.

NatworkAccess for Planning

Network Access tool has Geographical data, building data, roads, crossings, railways, landmarks, Soil type data, locality & population data available with PIN codes, Tehasils, villages, cities, districts & State boundaries. That is used for the Desktop Planning of Fiber Network that will reduce the Time, Cost, Manpower requirement for field Surveys. Centralised planning team can monitor field surveys with the help of Lepton’s WorkForce management (WFM) mobile based application tool Smart Patroller. This will help finalising Fiber Network plan with pinpoint accuracy.

While planning we have to consider the existing Fiber network of same operator or other operators, other underground cables, pipelines, power lines etc. With the help of Network Access it is very convenient to plan considering every other considerable aspect.


Smart Inventory for management-

A bigger challenge for telecos is managing its on field inventory. Even though if it is available to some it’s not accessible or available to all. It’s also has the problem when multiple stake holders carry & manage multiple entities of a single network. Lepton’s Smart Inventory tool specially designed to overcome similar & many other problems.

It has every network component & its inventory available over the GIS platform. As built fiber layouts, chambers, manholes, Joint-closures, documents like requests, permissions, legal authority letters, ROW letters, Site-data like Tower locations, shelters, racks, equipment, cards, antennas & connectivity details. Microwave details, backhaul details, POP locations & every minute details available on Geo-based platform. It can be made accessible to every stake holder in the organization who will be responsible for maintaining and managing this. That helps to do the analysis, understand, manage, maintain and update any changes in the network in easier way.


With the help of Network Access & Smart Inventory together with Smart Fiber it is very convenient to analyse, manage and update every detail of the network.

Analysis tools for every network is available over Network Access platform. Analysis like Feasibility, Grid, buffer, distance, covered population, network KPI, Fiber-cut etc. can be performed easily and faster.

After analysis every change in inventory can be maintained. That will keep track of every update of network, its faults, its implemented solutions and problems faced.

This blog is limited with length. So we could not cover each and every functions and applications of Network Access, Smart inventory.

Network restoration Post Fani: Telco Challenges and how innovative GIS solution helping them to bring up network faster.


The Impact:

After the Super Cyclonic storm ‘Fani’ slammed Odisha coast on Friday 3rd May 2019 morning along heavy rain and winds with speeds of up to 175 kmph telecom networks in all the parts of Odisha, including Puri and Bhubaneswar had suffered extensive network damage for majority of the operators. Many BTS along the costal side were totally disconnected from network due to the loss of backhaul connectivity that lead the Voice and Data connectivity to reach a stand still position.

This hit was also observed in the neighbouring states of West Bengal where many BTSs were down as it was pending for restoration.

According to reports, the telecommunication connectivity was partially hit in Puri and Bhubaneswar districts of Orissa. However, all the operators are said to be working to ensure connectivity for the residents of the state.


The major challenge that almost all the operators were facing was re-establishing the connectives and restoring the uprooted fibre connectivity and MW links that form the major core network of Orissa.

To mitigate the impact operators have setup war rooms to deal with the impact of the cyclone Fani. Circle and corporate teams had been working effortless to minimise the impact and in this situation the major planning for the re-routing decisions were taken.

These war front decisions had to be taken based on visualisation of the network on GIS-based Inventory platform documenting each aspects of network node capability. In this situation where visualising the network geographically is most important, Lepton deployed “NetworkAccess” GIS tool in almost all the Tier 3 cities.Operators proved to be the most effective solution catalysing the decision making procedures.

As NetworkAccess gives an entire view of the network that includes the cable routes, BSC locations, RNC Locations, Radio sites, Microwave connectivity, etc on field picture becomes very clear and decision for restoration becomes more specific. This resulted to mobilising of field teams for priority restorations and mark completion of activity on the tool itself.

On the other hand the next major hurdle that team came across was to target field restoration teams and tracking them at the same time. Due to huge restoration activities many teams were deployed but to target the team nearest to the priority cuts was becoming an added hurdle.

For this hurdle also Lepton with its award winning solution “SmartTrack” portrayed as a rescue to get online position of the restoration teams and assignment of the trouble ticket to user based on their current location. SmartTrack with its web and mobile interface tracking, assignment and closure of fibre cut could be monitored online helping for more better chasing of the restoration procedures.

A total of 210+ fibre cuts were reported , pushing part of the Client network to a standstill position , but as soon as the cyclone subsided teams with SmartTrack were mobilised and at an average MTTR of 3 H 58 M 10 seconds (maximum time to restore) fibre cuts were restored and huge chunks of radio sites were turned up as per the corporate plans

Three days after the extremely severe Cyclone Fani hit coastal Odisha, the Circle and corporate teams of operators are still coping with the herculean task of restoring the network in the worst-affected cities of Bhubaneswar and Puri but yes the automation and visualisation of the network surely provides a much required supporting hand for making the network functioning as earlier.

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